Skip to main content
11:00 am
the basque separatist group eta has offered another cease- fire, but a famous artist on their hit list asks if they mean it. hello, and welcome to the brussels studios of dw-tv and "european journal." nationalism and a language fight. the optimism of adelaide. france's president wants to include a bigger scheme for paris. the terrorist group eta has offered a cease-fire, but a
11:01 am
basque artist does not believe them. despite years in prison and exile for his communist beliefs and oppositions, eta has targeted him and vandalized his artworks speaking out against violence and basque nationalism. he believes their latest offer is a smokescreen while they reorganize and rearm. >> the forest watches its visitors. a riddle, one of the most peculiar placecein the basque country. the creator of this painted forest lives down below. 80-year-old agustin ibarrola. his works of art are always with them. >> they have taken on human life. they are my protectors. they always keep an eye on me critic -- they always keep an
11:02 am
eye on me. >> now it is clear that he has a sense of humor, because he is really under constant guard. for many years, he has not been able to spend a minute alone because the terrorist organization eta has issued death threats. >> the only place i feel free is in my work, when i am creating something. it out on the street, there is no freedom for me. i cannot go for a walk if i like in my own country, which i love, and which is tied to theest memories omy life and the memories of childhood. >> freedom is the theme of his work. as a young man, he fought against spain's franco dictatorship and was put in prison for it. his early works tell the story. after the dictatorship ended, he was a free man in a basque area for a few years, a breathing space in history.
11:03 am
but the terrorism of the basque separatist group eta and at that. the reason? ibarrola's of basque has always opposed basque nationalism. that is why eta put him on their death list. the eta terrorists smeared his house with slogans. when they failed to kill him, they destroyed his most important work. they defaced agustin ibarrola's painted forced. not only eta, that many other nationalists despise ibarrola as disloyal. so he seems a little lost amid his works. he could live more comfortably far away from the basque country, but they are considered stubborn, and in that, ibarrola is not second-best to the nationalist. >> i cannot travel round the
11:04 am
world because of my age, to paris,s, england, n.y.. i want to live here, in my own country. even if i always have to have bodyguards around me. by sticking it out, i am fighting for my freedom. >> the basketss -- the basque separatists have declared a cease-fire, no more attacks eta said in a video. but the masked figures did not say how long the cease-fire will last. it is now a coincidence the announcement comes when eta is a week. many of its members were arrested in recent years. popular support for the terrorists is dwindling. but ibarrola remains skeptical. peta has announced cease-fires before and has always broken.
11:05 am
-- eta has announced cease-fires before and has always broken them. more important, there is a coalition against the basque nationalists, but ibarrola does not think the conflict will end in his lifetime. >> there is a lot of fear in our society, and it will continue. it will t disappear all at once. a long development was needed before a movement arose that pushed the basque nationalist camp out of power. the nationalists will surely -- were surely protecting basque terrorism. >> agustin ibarrola will not be done with his bodyguards anytime soon. agustin ibarrola's living space remains limited and a bit unal. he holds no life -- he holds no chance of a normal life, but has embraced the abnormality.
11:06 am
we stay with conflicts caused by nationalist sentiments. for centuries, signs indicating mountains and rivers have been in german, the majority langge. in ct, there is a uniquely autonomous status. but now they are demanding bob ingleside said. that is not the first time that rome has made an unwelcome political foray into this mountainous region. >> this person knows every nook and cranny of the valley. he was in charge of the local alpine club for 30 years and texas up into the mountains to the refuge. it snowed last night, the first snowfallf the late summer. he says italian stay at home
11:07 am
during this weather, and it is true that most of the hikers that we meet our german speakers. -- are german speakers. they probably have little idea that they are walking past a politically sensitive post. >> some of the signs are only in german because the place names are of german origin. >> he thinks that is how it should be. most of the original and commonly used names here are german, while most of the italian names were imposed during the fascist rule of mussolini. in recent years, the local chapters of the alpine club every new some 36,000 signs, many of them only in german, which bothers some italian hikers. >> if the signposts are only in german, it limits the number of people who want to come here.
11:08 am
lots of people from central italy, for example, would have a lot of problems with that. >> in rome, the italian minister for regional affairs has told the south eta residents -- the south tyrol people to use different sign posts. it is belligerent statement is guaranteed to rob people the wrong way. south tyrol has not come to terms with its past. the release of mussolini on the local finance building it is seen as another case of italian arrogance. this person sits in the local parliament for prime minister silvio berlusconi's parliament. he is not comfortable with the debate surrounding the signposts. >> this has been in italy almost 100 years. i don't say this is italy, like
11:09 am
they used to, but we are also italian perry fighting is right, but every group has a right to their place names. >> this is the popular head of the local government. he has been running the province 20 years. south tyrol's economy as a lot healthier than it is elsewhere. >> i don't feel like i have to obey the orders. i am a freely elected representative, the head of the south tyrol government, and i have to represent the interests of this region. it is also about cultur values. place names have to do with culture. they are of cultural value perry -- they are of cultural value. >> they suggested a compromise with bilingual signs used where
11:10 am
necessary, otherwise in german, and mostly they get along fine, but the language issue is tricky. >> i think the signs should be bilingual so that every italian can understand where he needs to go. >> the politicians should have put people on the right track before the signs were put up. >> as long as they use bilingual signs in the cities, there should not be a problem, but the mountain refuges should be in german, the bad language they are named in paris it -- the language they are named in. that should not be changed. >> for this person, at the end of the day, it is a question of political judgment. >> if in today's europe a minister says he will send the army to south tyrol to take down the sign posts, then i think that as proof of italy's shortcomings. >> it is hard to argue with
11:11 am
those sentiments, and the army has yet to turn up in the idyllic mountain valley in south tyrol. the preseason suburb is a grim place -- the parisienne suburb as a grim place with high unemployment and the highest violent crimeate. cals are skeptical over sarkozy's trumpeted intention of bringing them into a greater paris by providing a rail link. local say is just a cynical ploy, although the mayor admits it would help. >> the large but triumph -- the arc de triumphe. thehe former president commissioned the modern version. it is a grand tradition. french leaders throughout history ve left their marks
11:12 am
on the capital. and president nicolas sarkozy also has big plans for paris, with the help of 10 top architects giving the city a new look. the presidents greater paris project is an urban renewal initiative aimed at revamping the french capital. >> greater paris will only be a cohesive city if we stop talking about the suburbs. if unstable areas cease to exist. if a person's destiny is no longer determined by the neighborhood he listened. when where someone comes from a longer be a source of discrimination. >> sterling sentiments, but in daily life, whether someone lives inside or outside the motorway around paris makes a big difference this district, for example, lies outside of the rain. police escorts to accompany us to visit certain parts of town. residents here have little faith in the government and many are
11:13 am
still angry with the french president. no one would agree to an interview. five years ago, they were rocked by riots. sarkozy's was -- sarkozy was the interior minister and he struggled to address the problems. unemployment and poverty are still rampant in the suburbs. those who can afford to leave are moving away. this was developed in the 1960's. but with no stop to connect t ntral paris, it remains isolated. the town hall, the sole historic building, carries a banner that calls for a tram line here. sarkozy's draft plan would see a stop on the new subway wing, but local leaders say that is not enough. >> some suburbs have had subway
11:14 am
stops for a while but are still struggling with problems and poverty. the subway is just part of the solution. troubled families need more help. if the job shortage in france continues, that is not helpful either. >> over the past 30 years, the old high-rise buildings have fallen into disrepair. today, they are a haven for thugs and drug lords. these are gradually being torn down and replaced by new buildings, but money for the redevelopment project is in short supply. the project director says it will take further million euros to help raise the standard of living in this underprivileged area, but his request for additional funding has been denied a permit -- has been denied. >> we still don't get the feeling that the suburbs are part of the plan. we're still getting signs of
11:15 am
solidarity. >> they will get their metro stop, but it is not likely to help residents feel like they're part of the new paris or convince them that sarkozy's plant is more than just a pet project printed -- or convince them that sarkozy's plan is more than just a pet project par. the treatment of people from the czech republic has been a taboo subject. now bodies exhumed and the mountains region and once dismissed as ancient have been identified as those of germans killed during the post war deportations, just some of up to 30,000 who may have died this way. >> this coffin is full of skulls, note other bones. it just skulls. hundreds were found in one place. officially, it was the old part of the cemetery, but some say
11:16 am
the remains are from mass graves credit ferdinand is certain that his father is not getting a proper burial after 65 years. he lost his father when he was 6. people from all over germany have come to the mountains, people who lost a close relatives after the war. all their lives they have been searching for a place to mourn, where they could lay a wreath. for ferdinand, the search has ended. >> my father is listed as missing. after the fall of communism, we found that he was murdered. that moved us very much. we did not know where he was buried or where his remains were. now we have learned that they were found and buried today. it is very hard to express how we feel. >> 65 years after the second
11:17 am
world war, people are finally beginning to talk about something germans and checks cannot talk about before -- and czechs could talk about before. they lived peaceably together for centuries. then germany started the war. this woman was always told there were no germans and these graves, that the bones were hundreds of years old. she did not a leavitt. -- she did not believe it. she was convinced they were removed from mass graves in the forest and reburied here in the 1960's. >> they recently found a pot from the communist times with the price still on that. that is not 200 years old, like some people try to tell less. -- tell us. >> young people from nearby villages have come to the funeral.
11:18 am
at their grandparents could have been among the killers. they remember the germa victims of thear and the expulsion is what this. airboat -- with this prayer. >> it is time to move forward. it is not only important to find out what happened, but to find all the graves and those responsible for the killings. >> these images shocked many czechs. the original footage was part of the killings at the end of the war. they were broadcast on prime- time tv in the country. the story has been a taboo subject for many years but is now the subject of wide discussion. the mass grave was opened in
11:19 am
this village, which is especially interesting because the police are not investigating possible killers who may still be alive -- are now investigating possible killers who may still be alive. when this journalist researched the story a year ago, he was fired from his newspaper because nobody wanted to believe them. now the whole czech republic is discussing the issue. >> it was very strange and the public was somewhat shocked, surprised this was y yeaearsrs.. the police have never instiged thorougy, and we stl wod noknownything about it if they had not prepared -- if they had not. >> after 65 years, the silence seems to be coming to an end. in the villages, people are talking openly about what
11:20 am
happened. up across appeared overnight as a silent symbol of remembrance - a cross appeared overnight as a silent symbol of remembrance. he did it, he says, because he is a czech. >> people were bten to death here. that makes no difference if they were good or bad. they were beaten to death with no trial or verdict. they could have tried them but they brutally beaten to death. it is not human. >> the past is being talked about and the dead properly buried. crimes are being called crimes. the relatives off the victims sy those are the right steps toward reconciliation and opens the path to the next that, for give this -- forgiveness. preferred dunajec flows
11:21 am
through southeast poland. it has transported passengers and other goods and timber, carried by raffs since the 17th century. the raftsmen kit businesses within their families, passing on their skills from generation to generation. today, cheaper options leave them with only tourists, and only then in fine weather. >> the boats are being secured, always ready for the tourists. the raftsmen on budget dunajec -- theheaftsmen on double dunajec river love their work. they did not always get to show off their prowess. >> waiting is frustrating, especially on rainy days like today. we have to wait for the tourists, sometimes all day. only when there are guests on board do we work and make money.
11:22 am
>> finally a tour group, their first passengers of the day. this has not been a good year for them. at first, the plane crash that killed polish president, and then massive flooding. poles are staying home. so they earn extra money working as a teacher. >> a young man can only earn a living as a raftsmen if he does not have a wife or children or lives frugally. then you can just about get by, but i have a family, so i need to have a second job. >> a raftsmen's job is more difficult than it seems. sandbanks and hidden rocks can be treacherous.
11:23 am
it is as challenging as in the days went raftsmen hauled helena -- hold heavy logs across double dunajec. back then, there were not as many raftsmen. first, that have to attract more tourists. some days, these raftsmen do not have any passengers at all. that is partly because of competition from the other side of the dunajec, the raftsmen from slovakian. at the polls do not think much of their slovakian counterparts. they say they are subject to very few safety checks and carry too many passengers. >> people can around. it has happened and that damages are image. when an accident occurs, all raftsmen are associated with it, even if accident happens on the slovakian side of the river. >> this man works hard to make
11:24 am
sure that the raps he makes are precise. at the wood needs to be glued to the water proof. he is one of poland's few traditional raft makers. >> i could start a company, but no one would buy them. most raftsmen make their run. they will not spend money to buy one from someone else. it would not be worth it. i could never cover the business taxes. >> in the afternoon, he is back home, with no more passengers. a>> that is my mother's brother in the photo cr. >> it bothers him that raftsmen like him do not haul logs like his forefathers did. he does not being reliant on taurus -- he does not like being
11:25 am
reliant on tourists. he wants to make sure that the traditional location does not die out. he would like to pass on his skills to his children, but not his daughter. he says rafting is a job for men. >> girls cannot work the raffs. it is a tough, demanding job. they do not have the strength for it. >> the real reason there are no women here could be the long waiting list for a license. there is no shortage of young people interested in ferrying tourists along the dunajec. s that gives meaning to the idea of trying to keep the family business afloat.
11:26 am
that is set for today. we will be back with "european journal" next week. we hope that you'll join us then. until then, goodbye from brussels. captioned by the national captioning institute
11:27 am
man: the drought has been the most humbling thing ou of your mind that this drought would end and that, it's a terrific lne year's country.
11:28 am
11:29 am

European Journal
PBS September 19, 2010 10:00am-10:30am PST

News/Business. (2010) (CC)

TOPIC FREQUENCY Eta 11, Paris 10, Sarkozy 6, Us 4, German 4, Raftsmen 4, Agustin Ibarrola 4, Italy 4, Rome 2, France 2, Perry 2, Brussels 2, Europe 1, Ingleside 1, England 1, Spain 1, Franco 1, N.y. 1, Langge 1, Silvio Berlusconi 1
Network PBS
Duration 00:30:00
Scanned in San Francisco, CA, USA
Source Comcast Cable
Tuner Channel 107 (693 MHz)
Video Codec mpeg2video
Audio Cocec ac3
Pixel width 528
Pixel height 480
Sponsor Internet Archive
Audio/Visual sound, color

disc Borrow a DVD of this show
info Stream Only
Uploaded by
TV Archive
on 9/19/2010